Table 4-35: Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Locomotivesa (g/bhph except where noted)
|Pollutant||Duty-cycle f||Tier 0 1973-2001h||Tier 1 2002-2004||Tier 2 2005+|
|Total HC equivalentd||Line-haul||1.00||0.55||0.30|
|Total HC equivalentd||Switch||2.10||1.20||0.60|
|CO||Line-haul (optional standard) g||10.0||10.0||10.0|
|CO||Switch (optional standard) g||12.0||12.0||12.0|
|Particulates||Line-haul (optional standard) g||0.30||0.22||0.10|
|Particulates||Switch (optional standard) g||0.36||0.27||0.12|
|Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h||Steady-state||30%||25%||20%|
|Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h||30-second peak||40%||40%||40%|
|Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h||3-second peak||50%||50%||50%|
|Useful life||7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j||7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j||7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j|
KEY: bhp = brake horsepower; bhph = brake horsepower hour; CO = carbon monoxide; g = gram; h = hour; MW = megawatt; MWh = megawatt hour; NOx = nitrogen oxides; PM = particulate matter.
a Locomotive standards apply to both new and remanufactured locomotives, except as noted.
b The line-haul duty-cycle is weighted toward operation in the higher power notches and is typical of line-haul applications. The switch duty-cycle is typical of switch operations, with more emphasis on idle and low power notch emissions. Locomotives generally are required to meet the standards for both duty-cycles. However, Tier 0 dedicated switch locomotives rated at 2,300 hp or less are only required to meet the switch duty-cycle standard.
c Tier 0 standards apply to all new production locomotives in the 2001 model year, as well as for any 1994 through 2001 model year freight locomotives remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2001. They also apply to all other 1973 through 2001 model year locomotives remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2002. Other phase-in options are also available for manufacturers (see 40 CFR 92 for more detail on phase-in options).
d Total HC standards apply to locomotives powered by any fuel except alcohol or natural gas or fuels primarily composed of alcohol or natural gas.
e Nonmethane HC standards apply to locomotives powered by natural gas or fuels that are primarily composed of natural gas.
f Total HC equivalent standards apply to locomotives powered by alcohol or fuels that are primarily composed of alcohol.
g Manufacturers and remanufacturers can elect to comply with the alternate CO and PM standards. However, a manufacturer or remanufacturer using the alternate standards must meet both the CO and the PM standards. This allows locomotives to have higher CO emissions in exchange for meeting more stringent PM standards.
h Smoke opacity values are normalized to be equivalent to a 1 meter path length.
i For Tier 0 locomotives not equipped with MW/h meters, the minimum useful life is 750,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first.
j This is a minimum standard. The certifying manufacturer or remanufacturer must specify a longer useful life if the locomotive or locomotive engine is designed to last longer than the applicable minimum useful life.
SOURCE: 40 CFR 92, Jul. 1, 2000, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, personal communication, Aug. 28, 2001.